Parental Alienation – The Five Factor Model

Parental alienation (PA) has been documented and discussed in the social, legal and mental health literature for over 100 years now.

This has resulted in confusion and disagreement among practitioners, clinicians and academics regarding what PA is and what PA looks like.

The five-factor model provides us with one consistent and coherent evidence-based model to conceptualise and understand the presence and indicators of parental alienation dynamics in a family at a given moment in time.

More importantly, it helps us to differentiate between PA and true estrangement thus, privileging the welfare and safety of children and young people.

The five-factor model presents an opportunity for professionals across the social, legal and mental health professions to achieve clarity regarding what parental alienation is and what it looks like in a simple and straight forward evidence-based manner. It provides us with a common framework to inform our practice with families and young people.

  1. Contact refusal.

  2. Positive relationship prior to contact refusal.

  3. Absence of abuse or neglect on the part of the alienated parent.

  4. Alienating behaviours of the preferred parent.

  5. Child manifesting symptoms of Parental Alienation.

4 CORE PILLARS UPON WHICH WE STAND

AWARENESS

EDUCATION

INTERVENTION

ONE COHESIVE VOICE

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About Parental Alienation Europe

Parental Alienation Europe is a resource designed to create awareness around Parental Alienation, provide education services to the public and professionals and to train practitioners so that they can intervene to protect children and parents who are victims of Parental Alienation.